KABBALAH

The word Kabbalah, from Hebrew Qabbalah, has two simultaneous meanings. The first one is: to receive, and the second: tradition. It thus defines not only the notion of receiving the deeper levels of Torah (Five Books of Moses) through God's grace, but also the tradition of passing that teaching from generation to generation. It is about the four levels of meaning of Torah - the literal meaning, the allegoric one, the Talmud - Haggadic meaning and the secret, mystical teaching.


The Kabbalah as mysticism defies the limits of space and time so as to achieve constant communication with God - the merging/union (devekut), while being esoteric through the fact that it is conveyed only to the few consecrated. That is the source of the notion of the Kabbalah as "a secret teaching" or, more to the point, "the teaching of the Secret". The name gets its esoteric meaning in the Middle Ages when mequballims ( kabbalists) started calling it The teaching of Ten Sefirots.

Retrogradely it denotes all the esoteric and mystical movements since the beginnings of Judaism till the present day.
Two most significant and the oldest Kabbalistic teachings are called Maaseh Bereshit -The Work at its beginning, and Maaseh Merkabah -The Work about the God's chariot.
Bereshit (heb.: at the beginning) is taught from the second chapter of the biblical Genesis -"what is up, what is down, what is in front and what is behind." The main sources of the teaching are the two most important and oldest Kabbalistic texts; The Bahir - Illumination, and Sefer Jecirah - the Book of Creation, written down in the 2nd century:
" This is the book of Letters of Abraham our father, when one looks into it, there are no limits to his wisdom."


This teaching is based upon "32 paths of wisdom" manifested as 10 Sefirots (principles of genesis - numbers - quantity) and 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet (quality). The 32 paths ( different states of consciousness) are contained in Torah ( the numerical value of the name - 32) corresponding to the number of tips on a five dimensional hypercube (the fifth power of two), thus opening the fifth dimension of Pentateuch. The Hebrew word for those paths is Netivot. They are individual unmarked paths, where one must discover on one's own and create opinions with one's own means.


The chart shows the 22 letters placed in a circle or sphere (Galgal), and the journey along the 231 paths in both directions, or entrance and exit through 231 doors.
The teaching is known under the name "The Teaching of Ten Sefirots". From the top downwards they are as follows: 1. Keter (Crown), 2. Chakhmah (Wisdom), 3.Binah (Understanding), 4. Chesed (Love), 5. Gevurah (Power/Strength), 6. Tiferet (Beauty), 7. Netzach (Victory), 8. Hod (Splendor), 9. Yesod (Foundation) and 10. Malkhut (Kingship). Apart from these God's emanations, there is a (non) Sefirot Daat (Knowledge). Symbolically speaking, Sefirots are The Tree of Life, and each contains all the ten Sefirots, which then individually recreate the following ten Sefirots...


Maaseh Merkabah is the most secret of all teachings, studying God's chariot, God's throne and God's chambers, as well as the highest level of angelic spheres. It concerns meditative ecstasy, the journey of the believers to Ain Sof - Infinitely All One, based on the first chapter of Ezekiel, written down in the 1st century. Another name is also used - Zeney Merkabah - forms and kinds of chariots. There is a Talmudic ban on passing the knowledge about Merkabah in the presence of only one person, unless the recepient is wise and can understand on his own what he is receiving. According to Zohar -The Book of Splendor, the third great basis of the Kabala teaching, the knowledge is conveyed when the recepient is forty years old because only then (after 40 years of wondering through the desert after leaving Egypt) can one really hetsits - look, and the object to look at is Pardes or The Garden of Eden. To be more precise, it is God's chambers, which is the basis of the Heykhalot literature - the palaces of God. The guardian angels of each palace analyse the merits of each one of them, and if he is worthy, they help him in his ascension. This discipline is very dangerous, and rabbis are repeatedly warning against them, since such an ecstatic experience can lead to death. The crown of the Kabala is the reception of The Song of All Songs which carries the Shi'ur Qomah doctrine, literally - the Body Measurements, i.e. the mystery of the divine form which appears on Merkabah's throne.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Riječ Kabala, od hebrejskog Qabbalah, istovremeno ima dva značenja. Prvo je - primati, a drugo - tradicija. Tako definira ne samo pojam primanja dubljih razina Tore (Pet knjiga Mojsijevih) Božjom milošću, već i tradiciju prenošenja tog nauka iz generacije u generaciju. Riječ je o četiri razine smisla Tore - doslovnom smislu, alegorijskom, talmudsko - hagadističkom i tajnom, mističnom učenju.


Kabala kao mistika pobija granice prostora i vremena kako bi se ostvarila neprekinuta komunikacija s Bogom - sjedinjenje (devekut), dok se kao ezoterizam određuje utoliko što se prenosi samo malom broju posvećenih. Od tud pojam kabale kao "tajne nauke" ili ispravnije rečeno "nauke o Tajni". Naziv dobiva ezoterični smisao tek u Srednjem vijeku kada počinje od strane mequballima (kabalista) biti nazivana i Naukom o deset Sefirota (sfirota).

Retrogradno označuje sve ezoterične i mistične pokrete od početka judaizma do danas.
Dva najznačajnija i najstarija kabalistička učenja nazivaju se Maaseh Bereshit - Djelo u svom početku i Maaseh Merkabah - Djelo o Božjim kolima.
Bereshit (heb.:U početku)se uči iz drugog poglavlja biblijskog Postanka - "onog što je gore, onog što je dole, onog što je ispred i onog što je iza. Glavni izvor učenja su dva najvažnija i najstarija kabalistička teksta; Bahir - Sjajni/Svjetli i Sefer Jecirah - Knjiga postanka, zapisana u II stoljeću:
Ovo je knjiga slova Abrahama oca našega, kad se jedan u nju zagleda, nema granice njegovoj mudrosti.


To učenje temelji se na "32 staze mudrosti" koje se manifestiraju kao 10 sfirota (principi stvaranja - brojevi - kvantiteta) i 22 slova hebrejskog alfabeta (kvaliteta). 32. staze sadržane su u Tori (numerička vrijednost imena - 32) i korespondiraju s brojem vrhova na peterodimenzionalnoj hiperkocki (dva na petu), dakle, otvaraju petu dimenziju Petoknjižja. Hebrejska riječ za te staze je Netivot. To su individualne staze bez oznaka, na kojima jedan mora otkrivati sam po sebi i stvarati mišljenje vlastitim sredstvima.


Shema pokazuje kako izgleda kada se 22 slova poredaju u krug ili sferu (Galgal) i putovanje po 231 stazi u oba smjera ili ulaz i izlaz na 231 vrata.

Učenje je poznato pod nazivom "Nauka o deset sfirota". To su odozgore prema dole sfiroti 1.Keter (Kruna), 2.Chakhmah (Mudrost) 3.Binah (Razumijevanje) 4.Chesed (Ljubav) 5. Gevurah (Snaga) 6. Tiferet(Ljepota) 7. Netzach (Pobjeda) 8. Hod (Sjaj) 9. Yesod (Temelj) i 10. Malkhut (Kraljevanje). Uz te Božje emanacije egzistira i (ne)sfirot Daat (Znanje/Spoznaja). Simbolički - sfiroti su Drvo života, a svaki u sebi sadrži svih deset sfirota iz kojih se opet stvaraju u svakom od njih sljedecih deset...


Maaseh Merkabah (Merkava) najskrivenije je od svih učenja, a izučava Božja kola, Božje prijestolje i Božje odaje, te najviši vrh anđeoskih sfera. Tu je riječ o meditativnoj ekstazi, putovanju vjernika do Ain Sof - Beskonačno Sve Jednog, a temelji se na prvoj glavi Ezekiela, zapisanoj u I. stoljeću. Pritom se koristi i naslov Zeney Merkabah - oblici ili vrste kola. Postoji talmudska zabrana predavanja znanja o Merkavi samo pred jednim, osim u slučaju ako je primatelj mudar i sam po sebi razumije ono što prima. Prema Zoharu - Knjizi Sjaja, trećem velikom temelju kabalističkih učenja, znanje se predaje tek kad primatelj napuni četrdeset godina života jer tek tada (nakon 40 godina lutanja pustinjom od Izlaska iz Egipta) on uistinu može hetsits - pogledati , a predmet pogleda je Pardes ili Rajski vrt. Ili točnije - Božje odaje, na čemu je zasnovana i književnost Heykhalota - Božjih palača. Anđeli čuvari svake palače razmatraju zasluge jednog i ako je toga dostojan pomažu mu da izvrši svoje uzašašće. Ova disciplina vrlo je opasna i rabini ne štede na upozorenjima jer takvo ekstatičko iskustvo može dovesti do smrti. Kruna kabale je primanje Pjesme nad pjesmama koja donosi doktrinu Shi'ur Qomah, doslovno - Mjere tijela, to jest misteriju božanskog obličja koje se pojavljuje na tronu Merkave.